Elsewhere others were celebrating. The US felt it had won a war without losing a single American soldier. For it was Afghans who had
fought on their behalf. Hundreds of thousands had died and Afghanistan had been left with a shattered economy and government. Would the
US take responsibility for Afghanistan in the future?
The man who ran the CIA's covert action in the latter part of the war now lives in rural Vermont. He's never spoken publicly about
Afghanistan before and I wanted to ask Tom Twetten about the American post-war plan.
Tom Twetten "We have this sort of piece of paper in our system, which is called 'the finding', that is signed by the President. Our finding
on the Afghanistan said, 'Push the Russians out, support the Afghans, given all the support they need' but it didn't say anything about what came
next. I can remember being present at a congressional hearing in which one congressmen actually said, 'So what party are you going to back?' And
we said, 'Well, that's not our problem, we don't do that.' We are a tool of foreign policy. That covert action tool worked, was successful in this
case, and then over to you, diplomats. That was a problem of really bad timing, because 88, 89, the wall came down in Berlin. It was a major event
of the 20th century, the end of the Cold War really, and Afghanistan fell off the bottom."
There were no funds for the reconstruction of Afghanistan, but what the Americans did leave was modern weaponry, some in the hands of
Islamists increasingly connected to global terror networks.
Tom Twetten "There was one goal that trumped all others, help the Afghans defend their soil, kill the Russians. Who was there to do it? They
were all Islamist's, and we didn't spend much time thinking about, you know, what degree of Islamist is it that we can't tolerate."
Twetten's CIA had avoided the trap of outright occupation. But they had walked within a dangerously narrow and limited vision, funding
brutal warlords, men linked to terrorists who would eventually kill thousands across the world. But the first to reap the consequences were
not the Americans, but the Afghans themselves. 10 years of Soviet occupation had left Kabul largely intact. But when the Mujahideen seized
the capital, they turned on each other, firing rockets from the ridgelines, destroying the very city and killing the very families they had
fought to liberate. The Civil War, perhaps the very darkest period in Afghan history, lasted for five long years.
I asked these Afghan men about its impact on their lives and their city.
It was out of this dark period that the Taliban emerged, believers in a strict interpretation of Islamic law. Many were the orphan children
of the Soviet war, taught in fundamentalist schools. They captured 90% of the country in just 2 1/2 years. They're infamous today for their
brutality, but many Afghans were at first grateful that the Taliban had won, because they ended the rule of the warlords, the gangster militias
and the Civil War.
Villager "All these shops were looted and all the items stolen. All done by these militias, but during Taliban regime, none of this was
happening. Now they don't, now no one would steal, they would cut the thief's hand and would hang it from that line. If someone would kill
another one, they would immediately take the culprit to the Ghazi Stadium. They would take him there and would kill him. They would cut his
neck since he had killed someone. Taliban's government was a very good government. There was no fighting, no pick pocketing or stealing."
I'm afraid many people in the centre of the old city of Kabul felt like that. After three years of seeing these great heroic leaders, the
resistance against the Soviet Union, turned into these monsters of depravity, corruption, power and killing, the Taliban seemed a relief.
But for millions of Afghans, Taliban rule was hell. They banned girls from school, forced women to hide even their faces and they inflicted
the most terrifying punishments. And yet, the West did not interfere. It wasn't the Taliban's cruelty that led to the next foreign invasion,
it was this.
The Twin Towers
The mastermind of 9/11 first came to Afghanistan to fight for Islam against the Soviet Union. He wasn't an Afghan, nor were the 9/11 hijackers,
but the Taliban government gave them refuge.
Once again, a superpower invaded and, this time, with good reason – to get Al Qaeda. The coalition brought many improvements to Afghanistan,
particularly in the early days, but the US soon faced the almost irresistible temptations of Empire. Like the Soviets, they were
tempted to reshape Afghanistan evermore in their own image. And when the resistance began against them, like Britain and the Soviets before them,
the coalition did not want to seem weak. And, once again, another superpower and its allies were trapped into investing more and more into
Afghanistan. Now, the Taliban has formed again and the country faces more people or even civil war.
We're on our way to find Mullah Rocketi. He's a Taliban commander who took the name Righetti because used to fire a lot of rockets. The
last time I met a Taliban commander, people pulled guns on me and, and threatened to kill me. This time, I'm really hoping for more of a
I found him in reflective mood thinking back on the invasion and the cycle of Afghan politics.
Mullah Rocketi "Taliban's ruling was harsh and strict especially on religious matters. But the fact that there was good security everyone's
life and possessions were safe was admired by people. With intervention of Westerners and Europeans, Afghans gained back some hope that they
may rebuild and reconstruct their ruined Afghanistan. And on top of that there will be peace, security and political reforms. But then as time
went by, by invasion of Europeans and Westerners, not only security wasn't there, there wasn't any piece. In past years in Afghanistan we have
witnessed revolutions similar to the course of the sun we see, rising in the dawn and declining back at sunset. One revolution swiftly followed
by another one. And now when it is Karzai's ruling, again we hear about the Taliban. So the rising is somewhat like, when one of them rises,
the other one whistles from behind."
Three mighty imperial powers, the British Empire, the soviet union and the United States, all came here, occupied and were trapped. For each,
for the last 200 years, it was easy to enter Afghanistan, but proved very difficult to get out.
In Boston's Helmand restaurant, owned by the sister of the Afghan president, Hamid Karzai, I reflected on these two centuries of Afghan
history with my friend the historian Tom Barfield.
Tom Barfield "Foreigners always coming into Afghanistan think, 'We have just what the Afghans need.' and are surprised that the people
aren't buying it. And a little bit more knowledge would be there is nothing that has been tried militarily or civilian in Afghanistan that
two empires before haven't already succeeded or failed at doing. A little knowledge of that would be like, been there, done that. Or, you
know, this road leads to a bad end."
The price paid in these wars by the people of Afghanistan is unimaginable. A self-contained country targeted repeatedly by imperial
powers, left with its own society shattered and over a million Afghan dead. This suffering and the intervention of all these foreigners,
Victorian British and Soviet Russian, CIA and Bin Laden, and the current coalition of nations, has shaped modern Afghanistan. But,
ultimately, this is a story that reveals, for me, less about Afghan itself and more about the foreigners.
There is something about invasion, particularly invasion of Afghanistan, which means that you go in very briefly and you get trapped
because all these theories, your fear of Muslim terrorists, your fear of some other great superpower, your worries about your own private
trap you in that country. And from that point on words, there's nothing that you feel you can do other than to dig ever and more futilely deeper.
Afghanistan has been for so many men a place of heroism, self-sacrifice. And yet, in the end, all this energy, all this courage, was
in pursuit of something which is simply wrong.